The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between handedness and hobby preference in healthy individuals. For this reason, the Annett handedness questionnaire and a standard questionnaire on preference for hobbies were administered to 879 healthy young men (age, M=22.3, ,SD= 4.8 yr.). Analysis showed more cultured individuals were much less likely to be strongly right-handed. Especially, pure right-handedness highly overrepresented among those who mainly preferred doing sports, pure left-handedness among those who preferred reading books, collecting, or going to the cinema/theater, and mixed-handedness among those who preferred arts, like playing music, drawing, or handicraft. The findings support evidence that handedness is associated with hobby preference.
Background: Self-harm among prisoners is a common phenomenon. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of self-injurious behavior (SIB) among Greek male prisoners, record their motives and determine independent risk factors.
Methods: A self-administered, anonymous questionnaire was administered to 173 male prisoners in the Chalkida prison, Greece. The questionnaire included items on self-harm/SIB, demographic parameters, childhood history, family history, physical and mental disease, lifestyle and smoking habits, alcohol dependence (CAGE questionnaire), illicit substance use, aggression (Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire [BPAQ] and Lifetime History of Aggression [LTHA]), impulsivity (Barrat Impulsivity Scale-11) and suicidal ideation (Spectrum of Suicidal Behavior Scale). Univariate nonparametric statistics and multivariate ordinal logistic regression were performed.
Results: Of all the participants, 49.4% (95% CI: 41.5-57.3%) disclosed self-harm (direct or indirect). The prevalence of SIB was equal to 34.8% (95% CI: 27.5-42.6%). Most frequently, SIB coexisted with indirect self-harm (80.7%). The most common underlying motives were to obtain emotional release (31.6%) and to release anger (21.1%). At the univariate analysis, SIB was positively associated with a host of closely related factors: low education, physical/sexual abuse in childhood, parental neglect, parental divorce, alcoholism in family, psychiatric condition in family, recidivism, age, sentence already served, impulsivity, aggression, alcohol dependence, self-reported diagnosed psychiatric condition and illicit substance use. Childhood variables were particularly associated with the presence of diagnosed psychiatric condition. At the multivariate analysis, however, only three parameters were proven independent risk factors: self-reported diagnosed psychiatric condition, illicit substance use and aggression (BPAQ scale).
Conclusion: The prevalence of SIB is particularly high. Psychiatric condition, illicit substance use and aggression seem to be the most meaningful risk factors; childhood events seem only to act indirectly.
E.I. Sakelliadis, S.A. Papadodima, T.N. Sergentanis, O. Giotakos, C.A. Spiliopoulou
Synaptic connections may be modified by many different forms of plasticity or adaptive processes. At some hippocampal synapses, such as the perforant path to granule cell synapse, long-term potentiation (LTP) is observed to decay over a period of days or weeks. LTP has attracted a great deal of interest as a possible synaptic mechanism of both learning and memory. NMDA, AMPA and metabotropic gluta-mate receptors are involved in the induction of LTP. Inhibitors of protein kinase C and CaMK II can decrease the induction of LTP. In addition, the phenomenon of long-term depression (LTD) is generally defined as a lasting , non pathological decrease in the strength of synaptic transmission. Several forms of hippocampal synaptic plasticity are dependent on calcium, providing a potential link between altered calcium homeostasis and memory deficits. Finally, psychosocial factors can have significant positive and negative effects on hippocampal structure and function.